Explains how organisms thrive or die in accordance with their openness or closedness to their environments.
Focus changed from linear causality to circular causality- idea that events are related through a series of interacting loops or repeating cycles.
Set of elements standing in interaction.
Each element is affected by whatever happens to any other element.
System is only as strong as its weakest part.
System is greater than sum of its parts.
Boundaries are more or less permeable depending on the amount and type of feedback received.